If you're flying into Somalia, the main airport for commercial passengers is Mogadishu's Aden Abdulle International Airport. At present, the only major international carrier that serves Somalia is Turkish Airways. There are no direct flights from the United States; the likely best route for passengers is to start at JFK International in New York, which Turkish Airways departs from.
Fares to Somalia are never particularly low. There is relatively little traffic from the United States, little competition since almost no carriers are interested in going there, and elevated costs for the carriers that do (as they have to pay their crews more and put extra security measures in place due to the elevated risk).
If you must find the cheapest possible fare to Somalia, your best bet would likely be looking at inexpensive departures with any carrier from New York to somewhere in Eastern Europe, as close to Turkey or the Mediterranean as possible. You would then look to take a Turkish Airways flight from Istanbul to Mogadishu. An alternate option is to connect through Dubai by flying with African Express Airways.
It is very important to check current U.S State Department travel advisories before departing for Somalia. There are regular terror attacks directed at Westerners there, as well as significant crimes of opportunity such as armed robbery. Mogadishu is the most modern and developed city in the country, but there is still significant risk even there.
The Aden Abdulle International Airport itself is funded and secured by Turkey. It has been targeted by sporadic terror attacks but aside from that is considered relatively safe for travelers. It is highly advisable to make arrangements for an armed security escort before arriving if you plan to leave the airport and walk around Mogadishu, however.
Foreign travelers should not even consider public transit options, taxis, or renting a car to drive themselves due to security issues. Arrangements must be made in advance to hire a local driver, preferably along with armed guards. Foreign travelers are at high risk of terror attacks or being stopped at an intersection for an armed robbery while driving, and even in Mogadishu there is significant risk of violence or robbery while walking around on foot. There are also no real traffic laws and driving is chaotic. Basically, outside of the airport, anyone who is not a local is going to want an armed escort and a local driver at all times.
If you need to stay in Mogadishu, there are a handful of hotels that cater to foreigners who need to be there for work purposes. These hotels have 24 hour security and are reinforced against terror attacks, as well as having amenities that are not common in the country (like continually available electricity, air conditioning and potable water on tap). Ensure that lodging arrangements are made and clear before arriving, as being left out on the street in Mogadishu can prove fatal. Also be prepared to pay $100 to $200 USD per night for these accommodations.
There is little reason for tourism in Somalia, but there are a handful of companies that cater to a niche market of Western thrill-seekers who want to visit lawless and war-torn areas of the world. These companies generally sell an all-inclusive package that includes armed security, a local driver and guide with an armored vehicle, and secured lodgings. If you absolutely must try to visit Mogadishu as a tourist, this is really the only viable option (and is still far from completely safe).
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